Factors affecting lifespan following below-knee amputation in diabetic patients
Untreatable foot problems in diabetics may require lower extremity amputation, which has a high level of patient mortality. This high mortality rate is worse than most malignancies. The present study aimed to identify parameters that can be used to estimate survival in DM patients undergoing below-knee amputations for diabetic foot problems. A total of 470 patients (299 males, 171 females) with a mean age of 64.32 years who underwent below-knee amputation for diabetic foot problems between 2004 and 2014 were enrolled in the study. The length of time from the operation to time of death was recorded in days. Patient details were obtained, including age during surgery, BMI, oral antidiabetic and insulin usage, dialysis therapy history, lower extremity endovascular intervention, previous amputation at the same extremity, the need for stump revision surgery during follow-up, and above-knee amputation at the same site. Biochemical test results of pre-operative HbA1c, ESR, and levels of CRP, BUN, and creatinine were also obtained. A total of 333 patients (70.9%) died and 137 (29.1%) survived post-surgery. Survival rates were 90% in the first 7 days, 84% in the first 30 days, and 64% after the first year. Patient median life expectancy post-surgery was 930 ± 106 days. Hemodialysis treatment (p = 0.001), endovascular intervention (p = 0.04), sex (p = 0.004), age (p = 0.001), BUN level (p = 0.001), and duration of insulin use (p = 0.003) were shown to be effective predictors of mortality. Life expectancy is low (<3 years) in DM patients requiring below-knee amputations for untreatable foot problems. Survival could be predicted by duration of insulin use, age, sex, and renal insufficiency. Level IV, Therapeutic study.