Calcium hydroxyapatite ceramics in orthopedic surgery
Replacement of bone by a bioactive implant is one of the main research topics of today's orthopedics. A bioactive implant should be reliable, economic and biologically compatible. Its mechanical properties must be in accordance with the implanted bone. Calcium hydroxyapatite (CHA) ceramics are effectively used as replacement materials of bone. These ceramics are mostly applied on prostheses as a surface coating. They also serve as presented in this study. Following the implantation of CHA ceramics into the long bones of rabbits the implantation site is assessed by radiography, histopathology and scan electron microscopy. Furthermore, 99Tc bone scintigraphy, dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) and biomechanical methods are used for the evaluation of biocompatibility. The possible side effects of CHA implantation is questioned and the results of this study indicate that these ceramics are effective when used as bone substitutes. The relation between bone regeneration, fracture healing and bioimplant augmentation is discussed and recent information on the mineral phase of bone and its calcification mechanisms are presented. Optimal implants that may replace bone in the future should be osteoinductive and their mechanical properties should be improved.
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